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中国航天“长征”(ZHENG)-5运载火箭
CHANG ZHENG-5 (CZ-5) LAUNCH VEHICLE
作者:环球展望军事网编译 来源:今日中国防务网 更新时间:2005-10-31 【字体:


航展上的中国长征火箭模型


运载神舟五号的长征-2F火箭

    中国运载火箭研究院(CALT)发展的“长征”-5(CZ-5)是中国下一代重载发射装置。CZ-5在下20~30年会实现大负载量“低环球轨道”(LEO)和“同步轨道”(GEO)任务的需求。用于CZ-5的120吨推力液氧/煤油发动机和500吨推力液氧/液氢发动机在2001/02年发展,一但计划给予最终决定前进,运载火箭它自身能在5~6年内为运转做好准备。

    如同中国开始雄心勃勃的有人操纵宇宙飞行和月球探险计划,现有“长征”(CZ-1/-2/-3/-4)系列运载火箭不能长时间实现将来的任务需求。中国运载火箭技术研究院(CALT)现在正在发展下一代运载火箭递送1.5~25吨负载到低地球轨道,或运送1.5~14吨负载到环地球轨道(GEO)。这会代替已存在的CZ-1/-2/-3/-4运载火箭,并且提供不被现有CZ系列所具有的新能力。

    下一代运载火箭将基于120吨推力液氧/煤油发动机和50吨推力液氧/液氢发动机为基础。这些发动机分别在2000年和2001年开始发展,而且发动机成功地在2005年测试。比拟目前的“长征”系列产品使用的UDMH/N2O4发动机,新一代发动机更加低的毒害气体散发和更好的可靠性。

    一旦在运转中,中国将会获得一种可比得上欧洲的Ariane 5的运载火箭。CZ-5将会被用于运送中国的多模块宇宙站进入代环地球轨道之内,或无人探测器或甚至有人操纵宇宙飞船到月球。


CZ-5运载火箭采用一个模组设计。被组合不同的模组内核级级,各种不同的能力助推火箭会被装配符合不同的负载量需求。这些模组的内核级使用120吨推力液氧/煤油发动机或50吨推力液氧/液氢发动机。
The CZ-5 launch vehicle adopts a modular design. By combining different modular core stages, boosters of various capabilities would be assembled to meet different payload requirements. These modular core stages are powered by 120 tonne thrust LOX/Kerosene engines or 50 tonne thrust LOX/LH2 engines.

    设计

    新一代CZ-5运载火箭将会采用一种模组设计,使用三种主要的2.25米、3.35米和5.0米直径的模组内核级。各种不同能力的发射装置从三种模组内核级和捆绑级装配。

    5.0米直径内核级利用液氧和液氢(LOX/LH2)推进剂和二台50吨LOX/LH2发动机。它能使用被看做聚立在一起的发射装置,或一个捆绑内核级的发射装置。

    3.35米直径内核级利用液氧和煤油推进剂和二台120吨推力液氧/煤油发动机。它能被当作重载发射装置的捆绑级或中等-负载发射装置的内核级。

    2.25米直径内核级使用液氧和煤油推进剂和120吨推力液氧/煤油发动机。它能被当作捆绑级或一枚立式装配的小负载发射装置。

    附原文供对照参考:

CHANG ZHENG-5 (CZ-5) LAUNCH VEHICLE

ChangZheng-5 (CZ-5, or Long March-5 in its translation) developed by China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) is China’s next generation heavy-load launcher. The CZ-5 would fulfil the requirement for large payload LEO and GEO missions in the next 20~30 years. The development of the 120t thrust LOX/Kerosene engines and 500t thrust LOX/LH2 engines for the CZ-5 began in 2001/02, while the launch vehicle itself can be ready for service within 5~6 years once the project is given final go-ahead.

PROGRAMME

As China launches its ambitious manned spaceflight and moon exploration programmes, the existing ChangZheng (CZ-1/-2/-3/-4) family launch vehicles can no longer fulfil the requirements of future missions. China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) is currently developing the next generation launch vehicle that could deliver 1.5 t~25 t payload to LEO, or 1.5 t~14 t payload to GEO. This would replace the existing CZ-1/-2/-3/-4 launch vehicles, as well as providing new capabilities which are not possessed by the current CZ family.

The new generation launch vehicle will be based on the 120t thrust LOX/Kerosene engines and 50t thrust LOX/LH2 engines. The development of these engines began in 2000 and 2001 respectively, and the engines were successfully tested in 2005. Compared to the UDMH/N2O4 engine used by the current ChangZheng family, the new generation engines have much lower poisoning gas emission as well as better reliability.

Once in service, China will have a launch vehicle comparable in performance to the European Ariane 5. The CZ-5 will be used to send heavy module of China’s space station into LEO, or unmanned probe or even manned spacecraft to the Moon.

DESIGN

The new generation CZ-5 launch vehicle will adopts a modular design, with three primary modular core stages of 2.25m, 3.35m and 5.0m diameter. Launchers of various capabilities would be assembled from three modular core stages and strap-on stages.

The 5.0m diameter core stage utilises liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) propellant and two 50t LOX/LH2 engines. It can be used as a stand along launcher, or the core stage of a strap-on launcher.

The 3.35m diameter core stage utilises liquid oxygen and kerosene propellant and two 120t thrust LOX/Kerosene engines. It can be used as the strap-on stage of a heavy-load launcher, or the core stage of a medium-load launcher.

The 2.25m diameter core stage utilises liquid oxygen and kerosene propellant and one 120t thrust LOX/Kerosene engine. It can be used as the strap-on stage or a stand- along small-load launcher.

文章录入:军闻    责任编辑:《环球展望》 
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