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中国YU-3反潜鱼雷
Yu-3 Anti-Submarine Torpedo
作者:环球展望军事网编译 来源:中国今日防务网站 更新时间:2006-1-13 【字体:


Yu-3是中国第一种自行研制的自导引反潜鱼雷,最初在1960/70年为中国核潜艇发展。

    Yu-3是一种声-自导引、潜射反潜鱼雷,由西安精密机械研究所(705所,中国造船工业公司的一个下属部门)设计。最初为中国核潜艇计划发展,它是中国第一种自行发展的反潜鱼雷,并且在1980年中期进入PLA海军服役。在1990年一种改进型即是Yu-3II(它的外销命名也即是Zhonhuaxun-2或ET-32)被推出。

    计划

    在1960年成功发展Yu-1非制导潜射鱼雷之后,705所开始去发展一种新的制导鱼雷用于中国海军提议的核攻击潜艇(SSN)。但不是发展相对简单的反舰鱼雷,只需要制导系统工作在双-空间模式,705所选择更具科技挑战性的反潜鱼雷,制导系统要在一个更复杂的三-空间模式中工作。最初可行性研究在1964年开始,而且发展计划在1966年3月在指定为Yu-3之下被正式核准。

    像许多其它的武器发展计划,Yu-3计划严重地被在1966年开始的“文化革命”影响了。在1967年中央军事委员会发布了特别命令,保护核潜艇和它的相关计划免于任何政治上的干扰,之后重新开始全速发展。昆明的一个深-水鱼雷测试池(代号750试验区)的建造在1969年完成。鱼雷第一次测试在1969年秋天进行。

    当鱼雷的发展严重的落后核潜艇计划(第一艘在1967年下水)的时候,705所加速发展在设计结束前去生产鱼雷用于最初一批生产。第一批鱼雷在1971年成功地装配,在1972年测试。鱼雷在1975年接收了它的设计证明书。


描述:Yu-3 ASuW鱼雷和033型Romeo级柴电潜艇(来源:中国英特网)
Description: Yu-3 ASuW torpedo and Type 033 Romeo class diesel-electric submarines (Source: Chinese Internet)


描述:PLA海军人员装填一枚Yu-3 ASuW鱼雷到039型潜艇发射管内(来源:中国英特网)
Description: PLA Navy crew loading a Yu-3 ASuW torpedo into the tube of a Type 039 submarine (Source: Chinese Internet)

    早期型Yu-3使用一个机械扫描制导系统,当接近到敌人潜艇的时候,需要鱼雷减慢它的速度以便制导系统可以发现并且锁定目标。这造成制导系统高度复杂和不可靠。一种新的多脉冲声-自导引制导系统从1967年以后发展去解决问题。改进Yu-3 0批次在1977年12月成功地测试。然而,鱼雷直到1984年才接收到它的批量生产证明书,几乎在计划开始20年后。

    705所和750试验区在1985年5月开始发展改进的Yu-3II。它的外销命名即是Zhonhuaxun-II或ET-32,鱼雷没有从国内或国际市场收到订购。

    设计

    Yu-3是一种设计从核潜艇(SSN和SSBN)和传统潜艇发射的反潜鱼雷。它采用声-自导引和电-推进,能交战高速、深-潜核潜艇。

    规格

    口径: 533 毫米
    长度: 6,600 毫米
    重量: 1,340 公斤(战斗型);1,203 公斤(训练型)
    弹头: 190 公斤
    动力装置: 电动
    速度: 35 节
    航程: 13,000 米
    搜寻/攻击深度: 6~350 米
    发射深度: 最大 150 米
    制导: (Yu-3)被动声-自导引;(Yu-3II)主动/被动声-自导引

    附原文供对照参考:

Yu-3 Anti-Submarine Torpedo

Last updated: 26 October 2007

The Yu-3 is an acoustic-homing, submarine-launched, anti-submarine warfare (ASW) torpedo designed by Xi’an Precision Machinery Institute (705 Institute, a subordinate of China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation). Initially developed for China's nuclear submarine programme, it is China’s first indigenous anti-submarine torpedo and entered service with the PLA navy in the mid-1980s. An improved variant known as Yu-3II (also known as Zhonhuaxun-II or ET-32 in its export names) was introduced in the 1990s.

Following the successful development of the Yu-1 unguided submarine-launch torpedo in the 1960s, 705 Institute began to develop a new guided torpedo for the Chinese navy’s proposed nuclear attack submarine (SSN). Instead of developing the relatively simple anti-ship torpedo, which only requires the guidance system to work in two-dimensional mode, 705 Institute chose the more technologically challenging anti-submarine torpedo, where the guidance system is required to work in a more complex three-dimensional mode. Initial feasibility study began in 1964 and the development programme was officially approved in March 1966 under the designation Yu-3.

Like many other weapon development programme, the Yu-3 project was seriously affected by the ‘Culture Revolution’ which began in 1966. The development resumed full speed in 1967 after a special order was issued by the Central Military Commission protecting the nuclear submarine and its related programmes from any political disturbance. Building of a deep-water torpedo test pool (codename 750 Test Range) in Kunming was completed in 1969. The first test of the torpedo was carried out in the autumn of 1969.

As the development of the torpedo was significantly behind the nuclear submarine programme (first boat launched in 1967), 705 Institute speeded up the development to introducing the prototype for initial batch production before the design was finalised. The first batch of the torpedo was assembled in 1971 and successfully tested in 1972. The torpedo received its design certificate in 1975.

Early basic variant Yu-3 used a mechanical scanning guidance system, which requires the torpedo to reduce its speed when approaching to the enemy submarine so that the guidance system could detect and lock on the target. This had resulted in the guidance system highly complex and unreliable. A new multi-pulse acoustic-homing guidance system was under development since 1967 to solve the problem. The improved Yu-3 Batch 0 was successfully tested in December 1977. However, the torpedo did not receive its batch production certificate until 1984, nearly 20 years after the programme began.

705 Institute and 750 Test Range began to develop an improved Yu-3II in May 1985. Known as Zhonhuaxun-II or ET-32 in its export names, the torpedo received no order from either domestic or international market.

The Yu-3 is an anti-submarine torpedo designed to be launched from both nuclear-powered and conventional submarines. It is acoustic-homing and electric-propelled, able to engage high-speed, deep-diving nuclear submarines.

    补充资料:《中国鱼雷的研制与现况》节选

    鱼三型:

    中国海军的第一种自制大型声导深水反潜鱼雷,代号YU-3。

    目前,该型鱼雷为汉级攻击潜艇的主战装备,夏级弹道导弹潜艇的自卫装备。60年代中期,中国海军开始研制核潜艇,决定研制一种深水反潜鱼雷作为匹配武器装备。在设计上,该型鱼雷采用电动推进系统和被动声导系统。在战术上,以能在深水攻击敌方潜艇,尤其是核潜艇作为基本作战要求。1964年冬,705研究所开始论证这种电动声导反潜鱼雷。

    1966年3月,国防科工委批准了研制方案,并命名为鱼三反潜鱼雷。在研制中,先后突破了高性能银锌电池,铝合金焊接鱼雷壳体,相位多波束导引装置等关键技术。1969年制出首具样雷,1984年研制成功。1988年5月,汉级核潜艇在海南深水实验场成功地进行了鱼三鱼雷水下深海发射试验。该发射系统能捕获目标并自动跟踪,一次过靶失掉目标后,仍可再次搜索与再次攻击。80年代后期,705研究所又对鱼三型加以改良,1991年试验成功性能更优良的鱼三改良型,亦称为中华鲟二型反潜鱼雷。鱼三改的最大特点,推测是导引系统由单一被动声导改为主被动联合声导,攻击导引精度和稳定性有较大提高。

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