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中国现代级956型导弹驱逐舰
PROJECT 956 (SOVREMENNY CLASS) MISSILE DESTROYER
作者:环球展望军事网编译 来源:今日中国防务网 更新时间:2006-1-3 【字体:

    PLA海军在1996年购买了二艘未完成的前苏联海军现代级956型导弹驱逐舰。重新命名被称为杭州(136)和福州(137),二艘驱逐舰分别在1999年和2000年交付到中国。中国在2002年和俄国签署了一份合同购买二艘追加的现代级驱逐舰,价值十四亿美元。这些根据传闻改进的956EM型采用增强的武器系统和传感器。第二批的第一艘驱逐舰在2005年12月28日被交付到中国。

    计划

    在1996年9月根据协议,俄国向中国销售二艘未完成的956A型现代级导弹驱逐舰。他们是舰体#18,前苏联海军Vazhny,而且稍后重新命名被称为俄国海军Yekaterinbugr(698)号,建造完成三分之二;舰体#19,前苏联海军Alexandr Nevsky,仅仅完成三分之一。两艘驱逐舰在1980年后期在圣彼得堡的北方造船厂铺设,在1995年由于缺乏资金暂停。

    现代级最初在1970年被苏联设计用于同美国海军水面军舰对抗,特别是航空母舰战斗群和宙斯盾巡洋舰。现代级排水量超过大多数中国自行建造的水面舰艇,在战斗潜力表现出全面进步。驱逐舰和中国自行建造的驱逐舰相比具有更长的续航能力。


现代级提供一个平稳的平台以大大超过大多数中国自行设计的能力。PLA海军希望使用该级去填补它在发展本国自行设计方面由于延迟所引起的战斗能力间隙。The Sovremenny class provides a balanced platform that vastly exceeds the capabilities of most Chinese domestic designs. The PLA Navy hopes to use this class to fulfil the gap in its combat capability caused by the delay in developing indigenous designs.

    现代级提供一个平稳平台,大大超过大多数中国自行设计的能力。PLA海军希望使用现代级去填补它在发展本国自行建造设计方面延迟所引起的战斗能力间隙。第一舰艇杭州(136)在1999年12月完成和交付到PLA海军。第二艘舰艇福州(137)在1999年开始了它的海试和在2000年12月交付到PLAN手中。两艘舰艇都被PLAN部署到东海舰队和安置在舟山(Zhoushan)海军基地。中国在2000年中期接收到50枚3M-80E “白蛉”(Moskit)反舰导弹,第一次试射在2001年进行。


“杭州”号(136)是PLA海军在1997年进入序列的二艘计现代级956型驱逐舰的第一艘。舰艇在1999年12月交付。Hangzhou (136) is the first of the two Project 956 Sovremenny class destroyers the PLA Navy ordered in 1997. The ship was delivered in December 1999.


二艘现代级956型驱逐舰的第二艘在1997年进入序列,“福州”号(137)在2000年12月交付。The second ship of the two Project 956 Sovremenny class destroyers ordered in 1997, Fuzhou (137), was delivered in December 2000.

    在2002年中国从俄国订购了另外二艘现代级驱逐舰,2010之前总数为4艘驱逐舰将在服役中。二艘舰艇据说为改进956EM型,将会装备改良的武器系统和传感器系统。第一艘舰艇(舷号138号)在2004年4月下水和在2005年12月28日交付到中国。第二艘舰艇(舷号139号)在2004年7月下水,但是预定的交货日期由于在2005年4月舰艇上发生火灾事故被延期。中国也根据传闻保留选择项未来订购另外的二艘956EM型驱逐舰。


位于圣彼得堡的北方造船厂从2002年以后为PLA海军已经建造二艘改进956EM型驱逐舰。第一艘驱逐舰在2004年4月下水并且在2005年12月交付。第二艘驱逐舰在2004年7月下水,但是驱逐舰在2005年4月遇到一次火灾事故。舰体据说已经被火损坏,而且预定交付不确定被延迟到现在。North Shipyard in St. Petersburg has been building two improved Project 956EM destroyers for the PLA navy since 2002. The first ships was launched in April 2004 and delivered in December 2005. the second ship was launched in July 2004 but the ship was caught in a fire accident in April 2005. The hull was said to have been damaged by the fire and the scheduled delivery is now postponed indefinitely.

    编目

编号(No.)
命名(Name)
舰队(Fleet)
下水(Launch)
服役(Commission)
136 “杭州”(Hangzhou) 东海舰队(East) 1981年4月(Apr.81) 1999年12月(Dec.99)
137 “福州”(Fuzhou) East 1982 2000年12月(Dec.00)
138? - East? 2004年4月27日(27.Apr.04) 2005年12月(Dec.05)
139? - East? 2004年7月(July.04) -

    设计

    现代级是一种典型的冷战-时期苏联设计,采用很多的武器系统和传感器,复杂的电子战/电子干扰(EW/ECM)设备。舰艇采用一种高大的、较大的外形,所有的武器系统和传感器暴露在表面上,严重的增加舰艇表面雷达横截面。


现代级956型驱逐舰被认为是一种过时的冷战-时代设计,有明显的外轮廓和没有雷达横截面减少功能。The Project 956 Sovremenny class destroyer is regarded as outdated in that it is a Cold War-era design with obvious external profile and no radar cross-section reduction features.

    驱逐舰没有红外线信号减少措施。在俄罗斯海军服役中的现代级早期型从它的烟囱时常产生严重的黑烟,但是这已经在以后的舰艇中改进,可能由于替换为改进的汽轮机。

    导弹

    现代级有八枚3M-80E“白蛉”(Moskit)(北约代号:SS-N-22“日炙”)冲压喷气发动机、超音速、掠海反舰巡航导弹(ASCMs),能以Mach 2.5的速度120公里之远攻击水面目标。导弹装备有一枚300公斤高爆弹头或一枚20kT核弹头。发射重量是4,000公斤。驱逐舰有二套四单元发射架,安装前面上层结构的左舷和右舷,设定15度仰角。


现代级956型驱逐舰在舰载上最强大的武器是八枚120公里射程、冲压喷气发动机3M-80E Moskit(SS-N-22“日炙”)超音速反舰巡航导弹。在2000年至少接收40枚3M-80E导弹并且在2001年进行了第一次试射。The most formidable weapon onboard the Project 956 Sovremenny class destroyer are the eight 120km-range, ramjet-powered 3M-80E Moskit (SS-N-22 Sunburn) supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles. The PLA Navu received at least 40 3M-80E missiles in 2000 and conducted the first test launch in 2001.

    二套单一防空导弹发射装置安装在凸起的平台上和130毫米主舰炮后面。发射装置能发射9M38(北约代号:SA-N-7“灰熊”)半主动、雷达制导、中距防空导弹。导弹使用“顶板”3D圆形扫描雷达用于目标追踪,“前罩”(Front dome)(三套雷达用于各自的发射装置,每套雷达使用二个控制通道)指示雷达用于导弹制导。至多三枚导弹能被同时地对准目标。射程对抗飞机达到25公里和对抗反舰巡航导弹15公里。驱逐舰携带48枚9M38导弹。

    舰炮

    驱逐舰有二座(一座在前面,一座在后面)130毫米AK-130-MR-184主舰炮, 被位于圣彼得堡的阿美第斯特(Ametist)设计局和弗伦泽(Frunze)兵工厂设计局供给。由火控雷达和电视瞄准器控制,主炮从雷达控制系统全自动操作,或使用转塔安装的康丹瑟(Kondensor)光学瞄准系统的自主控制,或用手动射击。射速在20和35发/分钟之间。

    舰艇也有四座六-管30毫米AK-630近防系统(CIW)。最大射速5,000发/分钟。射程用于低飞反舰导弹达到4,000米和用于小型水面目标达到5,000米。近防系统装备雷达和电视探测和跟踪系统。

    反潜战(ASW)

    被当做一种多任务驱逐舰,主要设计用于水面攻击任务,现代级仅仅装备基本的自防卫反潜武器。舰艇没有大型和昂贵的拖曳声呐阵列和反潜导弹系统,这些普遍安装在美国和日本军舰上。

    驱逐舰安装二具双管533毫米鱼雷发射管和两座6管RBU-1000反潜火箭发射装置,使用48枚火箭。火箭装有55公斤弹头和最大射程1,000米。

    固定的声纳包括“公牛角”(Bull Horn,Platina)和“鲸舌”(Whale Tongue)舰体安装、主动搜搜和攻击中频声纳。

    另外现代级也能携带40颗水雷。

    传感器

    空中搜索雷达是一套“顶板”3D空中搜索雷达,在E/H波段操作。雷达最大探测距离对飞机230公里和对掠海导弹50公里。

    火控雷达包括六套“前罩”(Front dome)(每套使用2个通道)用于SA-N-7防空导弹(SAM)控制,“鸢鸣”(Kite Screech)火控雷达在H/I/K波段(用于130毫米主舰炮控制)操作,“锻木捶”(Base Tilt)在H/I波段(用于30毫米AAA炮)

    “音乐台”(Band Stand)用于SS-N-22“日炙”反舰导弹的数据链,和一套“罩钟”(Bell Nest),二套“谷灯”(LIGHT BULB)和二套Tee Pump数据链。

    对策系统

    现代级配备有八套PK10和2套PK2箔条发射装置,四个“足球”和六个“半杯”(Half Cup)激光告警器。


956型驱逐舰发射诱骗箔条。驱逐舰装备很多的武器系统和传感器,复杂的电子战和干扰(EW/ECM)设备。Project 956 destroyer launching decoy chaffs. The destroyer is equipped with a large amount of weapon systems and sensors, as well as sophisticated electronic warfare and countermeasures (EW/ECM) equipments.

    航空

    舰载直升飞机基座容纳一架Ka-27“反潜战”直升飞机,北约代号“蜗牛”。直升飞机由莫斯科Lyubertsy的Kamov JSC和位于Bashkartastan的Kimertau研究和生产联合体生产。直升飞机能够操作条件最大海况5和距主舰至多200公里。直升飞机装备雷达、声纳反潜鱼雷、反潜导弹、深水火箭和深水炸弹。舰载航空燃料储备5吨。


在956型驱逐舰上的Ka-28“反潜战/搜索和援救”(ASW/SAR)直升飞机着舰。现代级在它的尾甲板有一个小型飞行甲板和悬挂装置去容纳一架直升飞机。A Ka-28 ASW/SAR helicopter landing on the Project 956 destroyer. The ship has a small flight deck and hanger on its stern deck to accommodate one helicopter.

    推进

    主推进装置包括二台汽轮机,每台使用两台高压蒸汽锅炉,额定全部功率50,000马力,二具固定螺距螺旋浆,最大速度32.7节。

    规格

    排水量: 标准负载6,500吨;满载7,940吨;最大负载8,480吨
    尺寸: 长度x宽度x吃水线156.5x17.2x5.99米
    发电: 轮机发电机 2x1,250千瓦;柴油发电机4x600千瓦
    全体人员: 344
    速度: 全速32.7节;经济速度18节
    航程: (全速)1,345英里;(以经济速度)3,920英里;(以18节最大燃料)4,500英里
    持久性: 30天

    附原文供对照参考:

PROJECT 956 (SOVREMENNY CLASS) MISSILE DESTROYER

The PLA Navy purchased two unfinished ex-Russian Navy Project 956 (Sovremenny class) missile destroyers in 1996. Renamed as Hangzhou (136) and Fuzhou (137), the two destroyers were delivered to China in 1999 and 2000 respectively. China signed a contract with Russia in 2002 to purchase additional two ships worth US$1.4 billion. These are reportedly the improved Project 956EM variant with enhanced weapon systems and sensors. The first ship of the second pair was delivered to China on 28 December 2005.

PROGRAMME

Under a September 1996 agreement Russia sold two uncompleted Project 956A Sovremenny class missile destroyers to China. They are hull #18, ex-Soviet Navy Vazhny and later renamed as Yekaterinbugr (698) by the Russian Navy, with two-thirds of building complete, and hull #19, ex-Russian Navy Alexandr Nevsky with only one-third complete. Both ships were laid down in the late 1980s by the North Shipyard in St. Petersburg and their construction was suspended in 1995 due to lack of funds.

The Sovremenny class was originally designed in the 1970s by the Soviet Union as a counter to the U.S. Navy’s surface warships, in particular the aircraft carrier battle groups and the Aegis cruisers. The displacement of Sovremenny class exceeds that of most Chinese indigenous surface warships, indicative of the overall improvement in combat potential. The ship also has longer endurance compared to the Chinese indigenous destroyers.

The Sovremenny class provides a balanced platform that vastly exceeds the capabilities of most Chinese domestic designs. The PLA Navy hopes to use this class to fulfil the gap in its combat capability caused by the delay in developing indigenous designs. The first ship Hangzhou (136) was completed and delivered to the PLA Navy in December 1999. The second ship Fuzhou (137) began its sea trial in 1999 and was handed to the PLAN in December 2000. Both ships are deployed by the PLAN East Sea Fleet and stationed Zhoushan naval base. China received 50 3M-80E Moskit anti-ship missiles by mid-2000. The first test launch took place in 2001.

In 2002 China ordered another two Sovremenny class destroyers from Russia, for a total of 4 ships in service by 2010. The two ships are said to be the modified Project 956EM variant, which will be equipped with improved weapon systems and sensors. The first ship (pennant number 138) was launched in April 2004 and was delivered to China on 28 December 2005. The second ship (pennant number 139) was launched in July 2004 but the scheduled delivery date was postponed due to a fire accident that took place onboard the ship in April 2005. China also reportedly holds the option to order another two Project 956EM destroyers in the future.

INVENTORY

No. Name Fleet Launch Commission
136 Hangzhou East Apr.81 Dec.99 
137 Fuzhou East 1982 Dec.00
138? - East? 27.Apr.04 Dec.05
139? - East? July.04 -

DESIGNS

The Sovremenny class is a typical Cold War-era Soviet design, with a large amount of weapon systems and sensors, as well as sophisticated electronic warfare and countermeasures (EW/ECM) equipments. The ship has a tall, large profile with all weapon systems and sensors exposed externally, increasing the ship’s radar cross section significantly.

The destroyer has no infrared signature reduction measures. Early variant of the Sovremenny class in service with the Russian navy often produced heavy black smoke from its funnel, but this has been improved on later ships possibly due to the replacement of improved steam turbines.

MISSILES

The Sovremenny class has eight 3M-80E Moskit (NATO codename: SS-N-22 Sunburn) ramjet-powered, supersonic, sea-skimming anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs), which can attack surface targets 120km away at a speed of Mach 2.5. The missile is armed with a 300kg high-explosive warhead or a 20kT nuclear warhead. The launch weight is 4,000kg. The destroyer has two 4-cell launcher installed port and starboard of the forward superstructure and set an angle of 15 degree.

Two single air defence missile launchers are installed on the raised decks behind the 130mm main guns. The launchers can fire the 9M38 (NATO codename: SA-N-7 Grizzly) semi-active, radar-homing, medium-range air defence missile. The missile uses the ship’s Top Plate 3D circular scan radar for target tracking, and the Front Dome (three radar for each launcher, each radar with two guidance channels) indication radar for missile guidance. Up to three missiles can be aimed simultaneously. The range is up to 25km against aircraft and 15km against anti-ship cruise missile. The ship carries 48 9M38 missiles.

GUNS

The destroyer has two (one front, one rear) 130mm AK-130-MR-184 main guns supplied by the Ametist Design Bureau and the Frunze Arsenal Design Bureau in Saint Petersburg. Controlled by fire-control radar and TV sighting, the gun can be operated fully automatically from the radar control system, or under autonomous control using the turret-mounted Kondensor optical sighting system, or fired manually. Rate of fire is between 20 and 35 rounds/min.

The ship also has four six-barrel 30mm AK-630 close-in weapon systems (CIWs). The maximum rate of fire is 5,000 rounds/min. Range is up to 4,000m for low flying anti-ship missiles and 5,000m for light surface targets. The gun is equipped with radar and television detection and tracking.

ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE (ASW)

As a multirole destroyer mainly designed for the surface strike mission, the Sovremenny class is only equipped with basic self-defence antisubmarine weapons. The ship does not have the large and expensive towed sonar array and antisubmarine missile system that are commonly found on US and Japanese warships.

The destroyer has two twin-barrel 533mm torpedo tubes and two six-barrel RBU-1000 antisubmarine rocket launchers, with 48 rockets. The rocket is armed with a 55kg warhead and has a maximum range of 1,000m.

Fixed sonar includes Bull Horn (Platina) and Whale Tongue hull-mounted, medium frequency sonar for active search and attack.

Additionally the ship can also carry 40 mines.

SENSORS

The air search radar is a Top Plate 3D air search radar operating at E/H band. The radar has a maximum detect range of 230km to aircraft and 50km to sea-skimming missile.

The fire control radar includes six Front Dome (each with 2 channels) operating at F-band for the control of the SA-N-7 SAM, Kite Screach operating at H/I/K-band (for 130 mm gun control), and Bass Tilt operating at H/I-band (for 30 mm AAA gun).

There are also Band Stand for the datalink of the SS-N-22 Sunburn anti-ship missile, as well as a Bell Nest, two Light Bulb, and two Tee Pump datalinks.

COUNTERMEASURES

The ship is fitted with eight PK10 and 2 PK2 chaff launchers, and four Football and six Half Cup laser warner.

AVIATION

The ship's helicopter pad accommodates one Ka-27 anti-submarine warfare helicopter, NATO codename Helix. The helicopter is supplied by the Kamov JSC of Lyubertsy, Moscow and Kimertau Research and Production Association, Bashkartastan. The helicopter can operate in conditions up to sea state 5 and up to 200 km from the host ship. The helicopter is equipped with radar, sonar antisubmarine torpedoes, antisubmarine missiles, depth charge rockets and depth charges. The aviation fuel stock onboard the host ship is 5 tonnes.

PROPULSIONS

Main propulsion include two steam turbines, each with two high pressure steam boilers rated at 50,000 hp in total, two fixed pitch propellers, giving a max speed of 32.7 knots.

SPECIFICATIONS

Displacement: Standard load 6,500 tons; Full load 7,940 tons; Maximum load 8,480 tons
Dimensions: Length x beam x draft 156.5 x 17 2 x 5.99 metres
Generating Capacity: Turbogenerators 2 x 1,250 kW; Diesel generators 4 x 600 kW
Crew: 344
Speed: Full speed 32.7 knots; Economic speed 18 knots
Range: (at full speed) 1,345 miles; (at economic speed) 3,920 miles; (at 18 knots maximum fuel) 4,500 miles
Endurance: 30 days

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