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中国YU-1反舰鱼雷
YU-1 ANTI-SHIP TORPEDO
作者:《环球展望》编译 来源:来自中国今日防务 更新时间:2006-1-2 【字体:


Yu-1鱼雷和它的发射管在25型(湖川级)鱼雷快速攻击艇上安装。
Yu-1 torpedo in the torpedo compartment of the submarine. Early variant Yu-1 has already been retired from service, while the later improved variant may still be in service.

    Yu-1是中国第一种自行研制鱼雷。一种苏联53-51非-导引鱼雷中国仿造型,Yu-1设计从033型(一种罗密欧级)潜水艇和25型(湖川(Huchuan)级)鱼雷快速攻击艇(FAC)发射。鱼雷是旧型号并且已经被更有能力中国自行研制和引进设计的新型鱼雷代替。改进的Yu-1A使用被动声寻的和仍然在服役中。


乘员载入Yu-1鱼雷进入033型(一种罗密欧级)潜水艇的发射管之内。 
Crews loading the Yu-1 torpedo into the launch tube of the Type 033 (Romeo class) submarine.

    计划

    在1950年中国和苏联之间的友谊、同盟和相互协助条约之下,莫斯科同意帮助新成立的中华人民共和国(PRC)建立一个现代化的军队和国防工业。被当做协议的部分,苏联转移它的鱼雷技术和一些样品到中国用于反向工程和许可生产。本国自行研制鱼雷发展由西安507所(现在西安精密机械研究所)进行。

    在不同的苏联鱼雷设计之间的评估导致决定去发展一种煤-气湿式加热器推进、非-自导引鱼雷,以苏联53-51型鱼雷为基础。富有经验的技术人员和工程师从跨跃整个中国招募参加鱼雷发展队伍。第一枚鱼雷在 1966年3月完成,但是各种不同的设计瑕疵在接着的试射中被发现。一个联合开发组,由来自PLA海军,许多的工厂和研究所的工程师组成,去解决这些问题。在持续18个月的广泛测试之后,发展在1971年获得成功。鱼雷在1971年3月接受了它的设计证明书和在之后不久进入了操作服役。

    设计

    Yu-1是一种重型、非-自导引、湿式加热器推进鱼雷,设计去同水面舰艇交战。鱼雷采用一个煤-气湿式加热器推进提供动力,最大速度50节。鱼雷射程9公里,配备一个400公斤弹头。改进型Yu-1A配备有被动声寻的头。


潜水艇鱼雷区的Yu-1鱼雷。早期型Yu-1已经退役,同时较新的改进型可能一直在服役中。
The Yu-1 torpedo and its launch tube fitted on the Type 25 (Huchan class) torpedo fast attack craft.

    规格

    口径: 533 毫米
    长度: 7,800 毫米
    重量: N/A
    弹头: 400 公斤
    推进: 电动(银-锌)
    速度: 50 节
    范围: 9 公里
    制导: 被动声寻的(Yu-1A)

附原文供对照参考:

YU-1 ANTI-SHIP TORPEDO

The Yu-1 is China’s first indigenously made torpedo. A Chinese copy of the Soviet 53-51 non-homing torpedo, the Yu-1 is designed to be launched from Type 033 (Romeo class) submarine and Type 25 (Huchuan class) torpedo fast attack craft (FAC). The torpedo is obsolete and has been replaced by the more capable indigenous and imported designs. The improved Yu-1A uses passive acoustic-homing and is still in service.

Under the 1950 Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance between China and Soviet Union, Moscow agreed to help the newly established People’s Republic of China (PRC) to build a modern military and defence industry. As part of the agreement, the Soviet Union transferred its torpedo technologies and some samples to China for reverse-engineering and licensed production. The indigenous torpedo development was carried out by Xi’an-based 507 Institute (now Xi’an Precision Machinery Institute).

Assessment between different Soviet torpedo designs led to the decision to develop a kerosene-air wet heater propulsion, non-homing torpedo on the basis of the Soviet 53-51 torpedo. Experienced technicians and engineers were recruited from across the country to join the torpedo development team. The first torpedo was finished in March 1966, but various design flaws were identified in the following test launch. A joint development team with engineers from the PLA Navy, a number of factories and research institutes was formed to solve these problems. After extensive tests which lasted for 18 months, the development was successful in 1971. The torpedo received its design certificate in March 1971 and entered operational service shortly after.

DESIGN

The Yu-1 is a heavyweight, non-homing, wet heater propulsion torpedo designed to engage surface ships. The torpedo is powered by a kerosene-air wet heater propulsion, giving a maximum speed of 50kt. The torpedo has a range of 9km and is armed with a 400kg warhead. An improved variant Yu-1A is fitted with passive acoustic-homing.

SPECIFICATIONS

Calibre: 533mm
Length:
7,800mm
Weight: N/A
Warhead: 400kg
Propellant: Electric (silver-zinc)
Speed: 50kt
Range: 9km
Guidance: Passive acoustic homing (Yu-1A)

    补充资料:《中国鱼雷的研制与现况》

    鱼一型:

    中国海军第一种自制大型反潜鱼雷,代号YU-1。该型鱼雷虽技术颇为陈旧,但目前仍是潜艇和鱼雷快艇的主要反舰装备之一。50年代后期,中国决定仿制苏制氧气热动力鱼雷,为此引进了蓝图和样品鱼雷。该型鱼雷欲用高压氧气,动力大,航程远,但安全性较差,易发生爆炸和沉雷事故,而且生产,使用,维修也很复杂。经过分析研究,又决定改为仿制苏制53型瓦斯热动力鱼雷。这种鱼雷虽然航程较短,但航速与氧气鱼雷相同,且使用简便,安全。当时,中国只有样品鱼雷而无蓝图,而且与苏联关系已经紧张,再引进蓝图已无可能,只好通过拆解手头鱼雷样品,进行逆向设计仿制。研制任务由舰船研究院705所负责,1971年定型。鱼一型直径533毫米,长7。8米,战斗部400千克,采用瓦斯热动力推进系统,最高航速50节,最大航程10千米,潜艇和水面舰艇均可配备。鱼一型鱼雷为一种自控直航鱼雷,虽然航速较高威力较大,但导引方式比较落后,因而不符合现代海战需要。80年代中期,中国海军装备论证研究中心改良研制出声导系统,使其作战能力大幅提高,次为鱼一型改良型。

文章录入:军闻    责任编辑:《环球展望》 
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