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中国“江湖”-I、II、IV(053H、053H1、053HT-H)导弹护卫舰
Jianghu-I、II、IV Class (Type 053H、053H1、053HT-H) Missile Frigate
作者:环球展望军事网编译 来源:今日中国防务网 更新时间:2005-12-15 【字体:


“江湖”(Jianghu)-I (510 “绍兴”Shaoxing)
Jianghu-I (510 Shaoxing)

    命名
    中国人民解放军(PLA)官方指定:053H型,053H1型,053HT-H型
    北约组织代号:“江湖”(Jianghu)-I、II、IV级

    建造厂:沪东造船厂,江南造船厂,在1975~1988年之间建造

    列入详细目录 (23)

舷号(Number)
命名(Name)
舰队(Fleet)
中国海军指定(PLAN Designation)
北约代号(NATO Codename)
509 “常德”(Changde) 东海舰队(East Sea Fleet)-下同 053H型(Type 053H) “江湖”(Jianghu)-I
510 “绍兴”(Shaoxing) East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
511 “南通”(Nantong) East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
512 “无锡”(Wuxi) East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
513 “淮阴”(Huaiyin) East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
514 “镇江”(Zhenjiang) East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
515 “厦门”(Xiamen) East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
516 “九江”(Jiujiang) East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
517 “南平”(Nanping) East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
518 “吉安”(Jian) East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
519 “长治”(Changzhi) East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
520* “开封”(Kaifeng) East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
533 “宁波”(Ningbo) East Sea Fleet 053H1型(Type 053H1) Jianghu-II
534 “金华”(Jinhua) East Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
543 “丹东”(Dandong) 北海舰队(North Sea Fleet)-下同 Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
544 “四平”(Siping) North Sea Fleet 053HT-H型(Type 053HT-H) Jianghu-IV
545 “临汾”(Linfen) North Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
551 “茂名”(Maoming) 南海舰队(South Sea Fleet)-下同 Type 053H Jianghu-I
552 “宜宾”(Yibin) South Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
553 “韶关”(Shaoguan) South Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
554 “安顺”(Anshun) South Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
555 “肇东”(Zhaodong) South Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
557 “吉首”(Jishou) South Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II

    注意:
    (1)520 “开封”号(“江湖”-I)可能已经报废
    (2)前538号和前546号(“江湖”-II)被卖到埃及
    (3)前556“湘潭”(Xiangtan)号(江湖”-II)南海舰队部署,稍后给孟加拉。


“江湖”(Jianghu)-II (543 “丹东”Dandong)
Jianghu-II (543 Dandong)


“江湖”(Jianghu)-IV (544 “四平”Siping)
Jianghu-IV (544 Siping)

    计划

    在1960年发展被当做一种主要的水面战舰用于海岸防卫,053型(“江湖”级)导弹护卫舰是在PLA海军服役中最多的水面战舰系列,五种改型总数为XX的舰艇被建造。

    053型计划在1960年开始,当PLAN必需一种装备防空导弹,对小型导弹艇和炮艇提供保护的新型护卫舰。计划多次延迟,由于在发展中国的第一种近程HQ-61防空导弹(SAM)和双管-100毫米主炮进展缓慢。最后防空导弹护卫舰提议被中止,而且053型的舰体设计用来为水面打击用途发展一种导弹护卫舰, 被命名如053H型。

    第一艘053H型(北约代号:“江湖”-I级)导弹护卫舰515“厦门”号,由沪东造船厂建造,在1975年完成并且进入服役。稍后江南造船厂也涉及建造053H型导弹护卫舰。053H型的基本型装备单管100毫米主炮和六枚SY-1反舰导弹。


“江湖”-I级发射SY-1 SSM
Jianghu-I Class firing SY-1 SSM

    在1978年开始去改进053H型,包括新的100毫米主炮,343型舰对舰导弹(SSM)火控雷达,“豆根”(Bean Stick)远程空中搜索雷达,改进了声纳,新的发动机和水/油再补给设备。这一个改型被称为053H1型(北约代号:“江湖”-II级)。

    PLAN也实验在一艘053H型护卫舰上安装直升飞机悬挂装置和飞行甲板。No.2 2SY-1 SSM发射装置,在后甲板上的100毫米舰炮和二座双管-37毫米高射炮(AAA)被全部移除去容纳一架Z-9直升飞机。在前甲板上本国自行生产的100毫米主炮也被一门法国制造紧凑的100毫米主炮代替。护卫舰在修改之后排水量轻微的增加。只有一艘544“四平”号已经接受这样的修改,而且它被计划指定被称为053HT-H型(北约代号:“江湖”-IV级)。

    设计功能

    “江湖”-I/II级(053H/H1型)护卫舰通常视为小型、落后的和现在仅仅有价值被当做海岸巡逻舰。不足的防空和反潜艇战斗能力,而且它的指挥和控制(C2)系统非常原始。除此之外,护卫舰自维持能力低而且不能远离它的基地作战。

    最初的水面武器是六枚SY-1反舰导弹,具有30公里的最大射程和一枚500公斤弹头,如果击中目标,导弹威力强大的弹头能击沉一艘小-到-中-型舰艇,但是不能有效的在一个强电子干扰/电子战环境中。次水面/陆地打击武器是两座100毫米单管主炮,操作仅仅使用光学瞄准具,没有雷达指示。

    空中防御主要依靠四座手动操作双管-37毫米防空高射炮,虽然一些舰艇配备有PL-8或PL-9近程防空导弹(SAM)和HN-5肩射防空导弹(SAM)增加防空能力。 反潜战(ASW)能力几乎一点也没有,但是它的SAW多管火箭发射装置是有效的武器用于登陆火力支援。


在“江湖”级上的PL-9近程防空导弹(SAM)
PL-9 short-range SAMs on Jianghu Class

    规格

    排水量:(标准负载)1,425吨;(满载)1,702吨
    尺寸:长度 103.2米;舰宽10.8米,吃水线3.05米
    推进:早期型配备有蒸汽锅炉,但是他们已经全部被柴油发动机代替。4台SEMT-Pielstick柴油发动机,2轴,14,000马力(“江湖”-II 16,000马力)
    速度:26节
    全体人员:190人
    雷达:(空中搜索)354型(护眼罩)2D空中/水面搜索雷达,E-波段;(仅仅“江湖”-II)517A型(“刀架”)2 D 远程空中搜索雷达,A-波段
    雷达:(水面搜索/火控)352型(“方领带”)水面搜索/SSM引导,I-波段;(仅仅“江湖”-II)343型(“黄蜂头”),G/H-波段(SSM和100毫米主炮瞄准)
    声纳:EH-5舰体安装MF
    武器控制:光学控制(主炮瞄准)
    电子干扰/电子战:Jug Pair截取;Mk137诱骗器火箭发射装置(RL)(在一些舰艇中),敌我识别(IFF)
    导弹:6枚SY-1 SSM,二套三联装发射装置;主动雷达引导,射程35公里,速度0.8 Mach,弹头 513公斤,液体燃料
    防空导弹(SAM):(仅仅在一些单位上)4~8枚PL-9C防空导弹(SAM),红外导引
    主炮:2座单管100毫米/56倍口径主炮,射程22公里;四座手动双管37毫米高射炮(AAA),射程8.5公里;(544号唯一装有一座法国制造的紧凑100毫米主炮和2座双管37毫米AAA)
    A/S迫击炮:2门62式5管固定发射装置
    深水炸弹:2或4个81型ASW RL,2个DC架
    航空:(仅仅544号)在舰尾直升飞机甲板和机库,一架“哈尔滨”(Harbin)Z-9直升飞机

    附原文供对照参考:

Jianghu-I Class (Type 053H) Missile Frigate
Jianghu-II Class (Type 053H1) Missile Frigate
JIanghu-IV Class (Type 053HT-H) Missile Frigate

NAME
PLA Official Designation: Type 053H, Type 053H1, Type 053HT-H
NATO Code-Name: Jianghu-I/II/IV Class

Builders: Hudong Shipyard, Jiangnan Shipyard, built between 1975~1988

INVENTORY (23)

Number Name Fleet PLAN Designation NATO Codename
509 Changde East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
510 Shaoxing East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
511 Nantong East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
512 Wuxi East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
513 Huaiyin East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
514 Zhenjiang East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
515 Xiamen East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
516 Jiujiang East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
517 Nanping East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
518 Jian East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
519 Changzhi East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
520* Kaifeng East Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
533 Ningbo East Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
534 Jinhua East Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
543 Dandong North Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
544 Siping North Sea Fleet Type 053HT-H Jianghu-IV
545 Linfen North Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
551 Maoming South Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
552 Yibin South Sea Fleet Type 053H Jianghu-I
553 Shaoguan South Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
554 Anshun South Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
555 Zhaodong South Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
557 Jishou South Sea Fleet Type 053H1 Jianghu-II

Note:
(1) 520 Kaifeng (Jianghu-I) may have been scrapped
(2) ex-538 and ex-546 (Jianghu-II) was sold to Egypt
(3) ex-556 Xiangtan (Jiangwei-II) was deployed in the South Sea Fleet, and later given to Bengal

PROGRAMME

Developed in the 1960s as a major surface combatant for coastal defence, the Type 053 (Jianghu Class) missile frigate is the largest surface combatant family in service with the PLA Navy, with a total of XX ships of five variants built.

The Type 053 programme began in the 1960s, when the PLAN required a new frigate equipped with air defence missiles to provide protection for small missile and artillery boats. The programme was much delayed due to the slow progress in developing China’s first short-range HQ-61 SAM and twin-100 mm main gun. Eventually the air defence missile frigate proposal was suspended and the hull design of the Type 053 was used to develop a missile frigate for surface strike purpose, which was named as Type 053H (Hai = Sea).

The first Type 053H (NATO codename: Jianghu-I Class) missile frigate 515 Xiamen built by Hudong Shipyard completed in 1975 and entered service. Later Jiangnan Shipyard was also involved in building the Type 053H missile frigates. The basic variant of the Type 053H is equipped with single-barrel 100 mm main guns and six SY-1 anti-ship missiles. 
 
In 1978 PLAN began to improve the Type 053H, including the new 100 mm main gun, Type 343 SSM fire control radar, ‘Bean Stick’ long-range air search radar, improved sonar, new diesel engines, and water/oil replenishment equipment. This variant is called Type 053H1 (NATO codename: Jianghu-II Class)

The PLAN has also experimentally installed helicopter hanger and flight deck on one of the Type 053H frigates. The No.2 SY-1 SSM launcher, 100 mm main gun, and two twin-37 mm AAA on the aft deck were all removed to carry a Z-9 helicopter. The indigenous 100 mm main gun on the front deck was also replaced by a French-made compact 100 mm gun. The ship has a slightly larger displacement after the modifications. Only one ship 544 Siping has received such a modification, and it was designated by the PLAN as Type 053HT-H (NATO codename: Jianghu-IV Class).

DESIGN FEATURES

Jianghu-I/II Class (Type 053H/H1) frigate is generally regarded as small, obsolete, and now only valuable as coastal patrol ships. The ship has poor air defence and antisubmarine warfare capabilities, and its command and control (C2) system is very primitive. In addition, the frigate has poor self sustaining ability and can’t combat in regions far from its base.

The primary surface weapon is the six SY-1 anti-ship missiles, with a maximum range of 30 km and a warhead of 500 kg. If hitting the target, the missile’s powerful warhead can sink a small-to-medium-size ship, but it is not very effective in an intensive ECM/EW environment. The secondary surface/land strike weapon is the two single-barrel 100 mm main guns, which are operated merely using optical sight with no radar indication.

The air defence mainly relies on the four manually operated twin-37 mm anti-aircraft artillery, though some ships are fitted with PL-8 or PL-9 short-range SAMs and HN-5 shoulder launch SAMs to increase the air defence capability. The ASW capability is almost none, but its SAW multiple rocket launchers are effective weapons for fire support to land.

SPECIFICATIONS

Displacement: (standard load) 1,425 tons; (full load) 1,702 tons
Dimensions: Length 103.2 m; Beam 10.8 m, Draft 3.05 m
Propulsion: Early variants were fitted with steam boilers, but they have all been replaced by diesel engines. 4 SEMT-Pielstick diesels, 2 shafts, 14,000 hp (Jianghu-II 16,000 hp)
Speed: 26 knots
Crew: 190
Radar (Air search): Type 354 (Eye Shield) 2D air/surface search, E-band; (Jianghu-II only) Type 517A (Knife Rest) 2D long-range air search, A-Band
Radar (Surface search/fire control): Type 352 (Square Tie) surface search/SSM homing, I-Band; (Jianghu-II only) Type 343 (Wasp Head), G/H-band (SSM and 100 mm main gun targeting)
Sonar: EH-5 hull mounted MF
Weapon Controls: Optronic directors (main gun targeting)
ECM/EW: Jug Pair intercept; Mk137 decoy RL (in some ships), IFF
Missiles: 6 SY-1 SSMs, two triple launchers; active radar homing to 35 km at 0.8 Mach, warhead 513 kg, liquid fuel
SAM: (On some units only) 4~8 PL-9C SAMs, IR homing
Guns: 2 single 100mm/56 cal main guns, 22 km; four manual dual 37 mm AAA, 8.5 km; (544 only has one French-made compact 100 mm main gun and 2 dual 37 mm AAA)
A/S Mortars: 2 Type 62 5-tubed fix launchers
Depth Charges: 2 or 4 Type 81 ASW RL, 2 DC racks
Aviation: (544 only) aft helicopter deck and hangar, one Harbin Z-9 helicopter

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