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中国海军“马鞍山”级(054型)导弹护卫舰
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作者:环球展望军事网编译 来源:今日中国防务网 更新时间:2005-12-12 【字体:


第一艘054型525“马鞍山”号在2003年9月下水,现在正在上海附近经受海试。The first-of-class 525 Ma'anshan was launched in September 2003, and is currently undergoing sea trial near Shanghai

    马鞍山级(054型)是中国人民解放军(PLA)海军用于接替“江卫”(Jiangwei)级的多任务导弹护卫舰。到现在为止二艘舰艇(525号和526号)在上海沪东“中华”(Zhonghua)造船厂和广州黄埔(Huangpu)造船厂分别建造。3,400吨054型采用法国制造的柴油发动机提供动力并且组合安装使用俄国和中国制造的武器系统。PLA海军可能在往后的几年以内计划建立另外的二艘。


054型“马鞍山”号护卫舰的艺术家想像图。Artist impression of the Type 054 Ma'anshan class frigate

    计划

    PLA海军已经从1990年后期发展它的下一代054型多任务护卫舰。护卫舰被期望能够在深海中操作,而且装备有能力防空和反潜战(ASW)的系统。被当做一种成本-有效率的护卫舰,054型舰载武器系统和传感器与最新下水的052B/C型驱逐舰相比较减少了复杂性,但是它的通用性能和能力更多优于以前中国建造的护卫舰,像是“江卫”(Jiangwei)和“江湖”(Jianghu)级。

    054型护卫舰的设计工作可能在1990年后期完成,但是计划慢速前进是由于在获得一种合适的推进系统方面导致。第一艘该级的生产,“马鞍山”525号,到2002年后期前启动。护卫舰在2003年9月11日在上海沪东中华(Zhonghua)造船厂下水。第二艘船“温州”526号在广州黄埔(Huangpu)造船厂建造,2003年11月30日下水。两艘船在2005年被期望进入服役。


中国054型护卫舰的第二艘526“温州”号,由广州黄埔(Huangpu)造船厂建造。The second ship of the Type 054 frigate, 526 Wenzhou, was built by Huangpu Shipyard, Guanngzhou

    054型可能被中国造船工业公司(CSIC)发展了F16U出口型护卫舰,在2000年被推销到国际市场。护卫舰在大小和一般性能方面可以和法国La Fayette级隐形护卫舰相比较。然而,054型不可能像La Fayette级一样的隐形。

    没有被证实的报告指出PLA海军可能额外建造二艘相同级别的护卫舰。设计根据使用者能够在江卫级护卫舰上发现的反馈修改,接着改进舰艇建造一个相似的发展型。PLA海军或许需要15~20艘更多的护卫舰代替陈旧的“江卫”(Jianghu)级。

舷号(Pennant No.)

命名(Name)

舰队(Fleet)

龙骨铺设(Laid Down)

下水(Launched)

服役(Commissioned)

525 马鞍山(Ma'anshan) 东海(East) 2002 2003年9月11日(11 Sept 03) -
526 温州(Wenzhou?) 东海(East) 2003 2003年11月3日(30 Nov 03) -

    设计

    类似法国拉法叶(La Fayette)级,054型综合许多隐形特色,包括倾斜侧边去最小化雷达横截面,在舰体表面上的雷达-吸收油漆和精简外部轮廓特征。增加护卫舰的排水量提供充足的空间用于更多的设备和更大的推进装置。护卫舰尾部有一个直升飞机飞行甲板和悬挂装置去容纳一架中国“哈尔滨”(Harbin)Z-9C或俄国Ka-28ASW直升飞机。


054型护卫舰综合许多隐形特征,像是倾斜侧边和简化外部轮廓去最小化雷达横截面。The Type 054 frigate incorporates many stealthy features such as the sloped side and reduced profiles of external features to minimise radar cross section


054型护卫舰与PLA海军早先的护卫舰相比较,像是江卫(Jiangwei)和江湖(Jianghu)级,提供多种改进性能和能力。The Type 054 frigate offers much improved performance and capability comparing to previous PLA Navy frigates such as Jiangwei and Jianghu class

    导弹

    054型最初的水面作战武器系统是YJ-83(C-803)掠海攻击反舰巡航导弹。两套四-单元发射装置安装在船体中部,在桅杆和烟囱之间的位置。导弹据说最大射程150公里,最后逼近目标速度能到达1.6~2.0 Mach。

    PLA海军现在正在发展更有能力的YJ-85(C-805)和YJ-12,两者据说是超音速掠海攻击巡航导弹,具有最大射程200公里。054型可能配备有新的导弹系统之一,一但他们成为可供应的。

    舰载防空导弹系统是HQ-7(也即是FM-80),法国泰利斯Crotale的中国仿造型。在054型舰载的HQ-7可能是改进型(FM-90?),具有更好的单发命中概率。一套8单元导弹发射装置安装在舰艄甲板100毫米主炮后面。导弹能够同飞机和导弹交战,具有最大Mach 3.6 速度和最大射程13公里。制导采用瞄准线指令连同雷达和红外光导引头。携带16枚导弹。在将来护卫舰上可能被一种采用垂直发射系统发射的新类型导弹代替。

    舰炮

    054型配备有四座6-管30毫米俄国AK-630近防武器系统(CIWS)。最大射击速率是5,000发/分钟。射程用于掠海攻击反舰导弹为4,000米和用于飞机为5,000米。近防武器系统或许由中国制造的EFR-1 “谷灯”(Rice Lamp)火控雷达控制。

    主炮位于舰艄甲板上,是713所最新发展的以法国Creusot- Loire T100C设计为基础的单管100毫米舰炮。主炮能被用对抗水面目标和空中目标,像是飞机和低速导弹,具有90发/分钟的最大射率。主炮能在雷达控制系统下全自动模式、舰载光学瞄准系统或用手动操作。炮塔设计综合极强的雷达隐形功能。

    反潜系统

    护卫舰配备有二具三管324毫米Yu-7(Mk-46 Mod 1)反潜鱼****。

    传感器

    护卫舰的主要空中/水面搜索雷达包括363S型(汤姆森-CSF DRBV-15“海虎”的中国仿造型)2D 空中/水面雷达,在E/F-波段操作。雷达最大探测距离对掠海导弹50公里和对飞机150公里。舰艇也有一套MR-36A水面搜索雷达,在I-波段操作。

    舰艇有四部火控雷达。一部345型I/J波段雷达(汤姆森-CSF Castor-II的中国仿造型)用于HQ-7防空导弹(SAM)控制,MR34型雷达用于100毫米主炮,和二部I-波段347 G型(EFR-1)“谷灯”(Rice Lamp)雷达用于AK-630 CIWS。

    二部Racal RM-1290型导航雷达在I-波段操作安装在桅杆上。

    对策

    护卫舰有一套922-1型雷达告警接收机和HZ100型舰载电子反干扰(ECM)和电子情报(ELINT)系统。

    航空

    直升飞机甲板在尾部用于一架中型直升飞机,像是俄国卡莫夫公司Ka-28“螺旋”或本国自行生产的“哈尔滨”(Harbin) Z-9C,有单一降落点。甲板配备有直升飞机处理系统。

    指挥和控制

    054型装备本国自行生产的ZKJ-4B/6(法国汤姆森-CSF TAVITAC的中国仿造型)战斗数据系统去综合舰载各种不同的武器和传感器。系统据说能够同时追踪和处理几百个目标。

    推进

    054型推进装置采用组合柴油发动机-柴油发动机(CODAD)配置。主推进装置是二台法国制造的SEMT Pielstick柴油发动机(~21,000 hp)。相同的柴油发动机机也在法国拉法叶(La Fayette)级护卫舰使用。中国在2003年据传接收了来自法国的第一批柴油发动机,是欧洲最先进的发动机之一。第二推进装置采用两台中国自行生产的8,840 hp(6.5 MW)陕西柴油发动机(MTU 20V 956TB92的中国仿造型)。

    补充资料:中国054型护卫舰、039潜艇进入高峰生产期(2003-10-9)

  汉和情报评论伦敦-巴黎-柏林- 斯德哥尔莫-莫斯科8 月22 日专电:汉和情报评论经由复数的欧洲军事工业界权威消息来源反复确认,掌握了中华人民共和国海军054 型护卫舰第一批次的生产数量以及动力系统的配置方式。汉和情报评论发言人平可夫表示054 的柴油机将是欧洲最先进的。
  
  CPP 的加工技术显示054 将是非常安静的护卫舰。与此同时,“TEMA 9xx 工程”显示054 还将配备某些俄罗斯的设备系统。平可夫表示054 设计的技术之复杂、牵涉国家之多,在中国造船工业历史上属于罕见。
  
  平可夫同时表示039A 潜水艇也配备了欧洲最新型号的柴油机,并且已经进入高峰量产阶段。它将以每年x 艘的方式加速生产。

    在上海建造的中国新型水面战舰群(2004年11月11日)《国际展望》杂志

  ◎ 054型护卫舰

054型护卫舰

  此外,还有在沪东造船厂有两艘,同时据说在广州的黄埔造船厂还有两艘在建的新型护卫舰。在沪东造船厂于去年9月,一号舰(舷号为525号)已经下水,武器搭载工事也已经基本上告以结束,估计很快就要开始进入试航阶段。

  这种新型护卫舰被称为江卫II级的改进型,几乎贯穿整个舰身,拥有非常明显的屈折线以及有着明显考虑到隐身性的上层建筑。与其说是江卫II型的改进型,倒象是更接近052B以及052C型。其武器是前甲板的100毫米单装火炮一座,紧接着就是后面01层的红旗-7近程舰空导弹八联装发射架一座,两根桅杆中间有鹰击-82反舰导弹四联发射架两座,上层建筑后端备有可装载直升机一架的机库。

  耐人寻味的亮点是,虽然以江卫II型为代表的最近一代中国的水上战斗舰艇上,一般只采用37毫米双联装火炮来作为近距离防空自卫火器,与此相对的是,054型却装备了俄罗斯制的AK630型30毫米近距火力系统。

  最后,根据简氏年鉴等资料,其主机是柴油动力,航速27节,在18节时,其续航距离是3800海里。

    中国新型导弹护卫舰入役 军方专家为官兵培训(2005年10月11日)科技日报


中国海军新入役的054型525号导弹护卫舰

    9月27日,刚刚装备部队的某新型导弹护卫舰上,一名专家正深入讲解该舰的技战术性能和主要装备,几十名干部围在旁边全神贯注地听、争先恐后地问、认真仔细地记。这不是在上专业技术课,而是东海舰队政治部开展“新装备知识学习周”活动、组织全体机关干部到新装备部队参观见学的一个缩影。

    最近,该部在调查中发现,少数同志虽然业务知识比较熟悉,但学习新装备的及时性、主动性不够,对新装备入列后部队实力部署、作战样式等改变研究不深,影响了政治工作指导的针对性和实效性。该部党委感到:作为舰队政治工作领导机关的同志,如果不能及时掌握所属部队的新装备,怎么能够有的放矢地开展政治工作?怎么能够为部队信息化建设领好路、带好头?为此,他们从提高政治机关干部科技素质入手,集中利用一周时间,深入开展“新装备知识学习周”活动,邀请7名理论和实践经验比较丰富的舰队机关和部队有关领导,分别讲授新型驱护舰、潜艇、导弹艇以及新型战机等舰队所属装备的技战术性能和使用要求,安排从新装备部队代职锻炼回来的同志汇报部队建设情况,组织全体机关干部到新装备部队参观见学,使大家了解了舰队部队现有的主战装备,掌握了信息化战争对政治工作的新要求,增强了提高科技素质的紧迫感。

    附原文供对照参考:

Ma'anshan Class (Type 054) Missile Frigate

Ma’anshan class (Type 054) is the multirole missile frigate for the PLA Navy to succeed the Jiangwei class frigate. So far two ships (525 and 526) have been identified under construction in Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard, Shanghai and Huangpu Shipyard, Guangzhou respectively. The 3,400t Type 054 is powered by French-made diesels and fitted with a mixture of Russian- and Chinese-made weapon systems. The PLA Navy may plan to build another two ships over the next few years.

PROGRAMME

The PLA Navy has been developing its next generation multirole frigate Type 054 since the late 1990s. The frigate is expected to be able to operate in deep oceans, and equipped with capable air defence and antisubmarine warfare (ASW) systems. As a cost-efficient frigate, the weapon systems and sensors onboard the Type 054 are less sophisticated comparing to the newly launched Type 052B/C destroyers, but its general performance and capability are much superior to the previous Chinese-built frigates such as the Jiangwei and Jianghu class.

The design works of the Type 054 frigate completed possibly in the late 1990s, but the slow progress in acquiring a suitable propulsion system for the ship has caused delays in the project. Production of the first-of-class, 525 Ma’anshan, did not start until late 2002. The ship was launched on 11 September 2003 at Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard in Shanghai. The second ship 526 Wenzhou? was launched on 30 November 2003 at Huangpu Shipyard, Guangzhou. Both ships are expected to enter service in 2005.

The Type 054 may be developed from the China Shipbuilding Industry Co. (CSIC) F16U export frigate, which was promoted to international market in 2000. The frigate is comparable to the French La Fayette class stealthy frigate in size and general performance. However, the Type 054 may not be as stealthy as the La Fayette class.

Unconfirmed reports indicated that the PLA Navy may build two additional ships of same class. The design is then revised on the basis of user feedbacks before the following improved ships are built—a similar development pattern can be found on the Jiangwei class frigate. The PLA Navy probably needs 15~20 more frigates to replace the bulk of the ageing Jianghu class.

EPLOYMENT

Pennant No.
 Name
 Fleet
 Laid Down
 Launched
 Commissioned
 
525 Ma'anshan East 2002 11 Sept 03 -
526 Wenzhou? East 2003 30 Nov 03 -

DESIGN

Like the French La Fayette class, the Type 054 incorporates a number of stealthy features, including the sloped side to minimise radar cross section, the radar-absorbent paint on the hull surface, and the reduced profiles of external features. The increased displacement of the frigate provides plenty space for more equipment and larger propulsions. The ship has a stern helicopter flight deck and hanger to accommodate a Chinese Harbin Z-9C or Russian Ka-28 ASW helicopter.

MISSILES

The Type 054’s primary surface strike weapon system is the YJ-83 (C-803) sea-skimming anti-ship cruise missile. Two four-cell launchers are installed in the midship position between the mast and the funnel. The missile is said to have a maximum range of 150km, and its final approach speed can reach 1.6~2.0 Mach.

The PLA Navy is currently developing the more capable YJ-85 (C-805) and YJ-12, both of which are said to be supersonic sea skimming cruise missile with a maximum range of over 200km. The Type 054 may be fitted with the one of the new missile systems once they become available.

The ship’s surface-to-air missile system is the HQ-7 (also known as FM-80), the Chinese copy of the French Thales Crotale. The HQ-7 onboard the Type 054 may be an improved model (FM-90?) with better single hit probability. An 8-cell missile launcher is installed on the bow deck behind the 100mm main gun. The missile is capable of engaging aircraft and missile, with a maximum range of 13km and speed of Mach 3.6. The guidance is by command line of sight with radar and infrared homing. 16 missiles are carried. On future ships this may be replaced by a new type of missile fired from the vertical launch system (VLS).

GUN

The Type 054 is fitted with four six-barrel 30mm Russian AK-630 close-in weapon system (CIWS). The maximum rate of fire is 5,000 rounds/min. Range is up to 4,000m for sea-skimming anti-ship missile and 5,000m for aircraft. The gun is probably controlled by the Chinese-made EFR-1 Rice Lamp fire-control radar.

The ship’s main gun on the bow deck is the newly developed single-barrel 100mm gun developed by 713 Institute on the basis of the French Creusot-Loire T100C design. The gun can be used against surface targets and air targets such as aircraft and low speed missile, with a maximum rate of fire of 90 rounds/min. The gun can be operated in fully automatic mode from the radar control system, from the shipborne optical sighting system, or laid manually. The turret design incorporates strong radar cross-section reduction features.

ANTI-SUBMARINE SYSTEMS

The ship is fitted with two triple 324mm Yu-7 (Mk-46 Mod 1) antisubmarine torpedo tubes.

SENSORS

The ship's primary air/surface search radars include a Type 363S (Chinese copy of Thomson-CSF DRBV-15 Sea Tiger) 2D air/surface radar operating at E/F-band. The radar has a maximum detection range of 150km to aircraft and 50km to sea-skimming missile. The ship also has an MR-36A surface search radar operating at I-band.

The ship has four fire-control radars. One I/J-band Type 345 (Chinese copy of Thomson CSF Castor-II) radar for the HQ-7 SAM control, an MR34 for the 100mm main gun, and two I-band Type 347G (EFR-1) Rice Lamp radars for use with the AK-630 CIWS.

Two Racal RM-1290 navigation radars operating at I-band are fitted on the mast.

COUNTERMEASURES

The ship has a Type 922-1 radar warning receiver and the HZ100 shipborne electronic countermeasures (ECM) and electronic intelligence (ELINT) system.

AVIATION

The helicopter deck at the stern has a single landing spot for a medium size helicopter, such as the Russian Kamov Ka-28 Helix, or the indigenous Harbin Z-9C. The deck is fitted with the helicopter handling system.

COMMAND AND CONTROL

The Type 054 is equipped with the indigenous ZKJ-4B/6 (Chinese copy of the French Thomson-CSF TAVITAC) combat data system to integrate various weapons and sensors onboard. The system is said to be capable of tracking and processing several hundred targets simultaneously.

PROPULSION

The propulsion of the Type 054 is a combined diesel and diesel (CODAD) arrangement. The primary propulsion is two French-made SEMT Pielstick diesel engines (~21,000hp). The similar diesel engine is used by the French La Fayette class frigate. China reportedly received the first batch of the diesel engines from France in 2003. The powerplant is said to be one of the most advanced in Europe. The secondary propulsion is two indigenous Shaanxi diesels (Chinese copy of the MTU 20V 956TB92) rated at 8,840 hp (6.5 MW).

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