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以色列“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2格斗导弹
Shafrir 2
作者:环球展望 来源:本站原创 更新时间:2006-3-26 【字体:



    “蜻蜓”(Shafrir)1是以色列导弹工业的第一次尝试,去发展一种初始的空对空导弹,那将设法去战胜当时世界上出现的最好的空对空导弹。它从没有经过性能测试,不包括摧毁三架mig-21。而且,它的设计没有令空军的需求满意。

    它被设计当做一种以直接碰撞为基础的小型导弹。它的发动机和弹头是尺寸不大,一个事实是导致性能方面降低。而且是不足的,它弹头设计最初没有近炸引信。

    在发展期间,没有人预知生产过程中任何特别的问题。最后,它似乎是“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2发展计划的最棘手的问题,并且是会影响整个以色列防卫工业结构的一个。

    防卫工业的首脑想要增加在工厂之间的竞争,井然有序地减少成本和增加效率。与他们计划的相反,IMI曾遇到一些导弹组件的生产困难。这导致在导弹操作转弯方面的一个迟延。接着,以色列拉菲尔武器发展局(Rafael)采取自己领导计划,最初是做为IMI的一个子承包商,于是当做主要的一个。

    “蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2回答了工程师的期待。它经得起他们面对的几乎所有的设计需要。在操作上谈论,“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2是一个巨大的成功故事,它本身具有击落106架敌人的荣誉。在技术条件上,当时它不包括当时已有的最新发展,如同“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2的成果是工程师设计“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)1的创造。

    在回顾中,决定使用“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)1寻的制导头和它的光电近炸引信是正确的。新的技术,像是冷却的寻的制导头和电磁近炸引信在那时不是可得的,并且必须从头发展。这样的冒险可以毁灭整个计划,如此确定发展一种背面-扇形拦截导弹是适当的。但是在启动“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2的发展时候,美国AIM-9D导弹已经在生产中而且有能力在较宽的扇面发射,采用一个冷却寻的制导头和一个电磁近炸引信。而且的确,在“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2完成前,明显的,下一代空对空导弹“蟒蛇”(Python)-3,需要被发展。

    然而,在操作成就条件上,“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2并非与它的技术更先进美国竞争者相比不合格。

“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2在1973年赎罪日战争中的惊奇

    在赎罪日战争的傍晚以色列空军(IAF)蒙受与它的敌人空军相对比的数量劣势。埃及空军有600架战斗机,叙利亚空军有345架,以及以色列空军(IAF)计算在内有192架战斗机。他们中的76架是Shahak和Nesher战斗机装备“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2空对空导弹。战斗机在4个空军中队中部署。在那时,以色列空军(IAF)有4种空对空导弹-AIM-9D,AIM-9G,AIM-7E和“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2。
战争在没有预警的10月6日开始。以色列国防军(IDF)在巨大的意外中,不顾它存在取得空中优势的原则,被当做一个嬴得战争的关键角色, 并且空军给予地面力量支援,被引导大多数它的出动架次到战场战斗,为了防止推进的敌人军队进入色列的城市的灾难。

    空军的一个计划去打击没有普遍使用的埃及和叙利亚共和国先发制人的攻击(pre-emptive strike)。

    没有攻击飞机场、防空导弹(SAM)阵地或地面。这导致在现代空战中的一次最激烈的空战;277架埃及和叙利亚的飞机被击落,它们的一半是被以色列空对空导弹击落的。

    176枚“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2导弹对敌人的飞机发射,摧毁89架飞机。“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2杀伤率是发射的50.7%和32.1%完全击落;AIM-9D和AIM-9G成功稍少,达到39.8%和18.9%完全击落;AIM-7E导弹有一个25%的成功率,12枚导弹击落3架飞机,1.1%完全击落。

    它是明显的,“蜻蜓”(Shafrir)2是以色列空军(IAF)在赎罪日战争期间操作的最成功的空对空导弹。

长度(Length)
250 cm
翼展(Span)
55 cm
弹体(Body)
15 cm
重量(Weight)
93 kg (战斗部(warhead) 11kg, 发动机(motor) 50 kg) 
制导类型(Guidance Type)
IR 
类型(Model)
1 x spr. 
射程(Range)
5 km

    附原文供对照参考:

Shafrir 2

    Shafrir 1 was a first attempt of the Israeli missile industry to develop an original air-to-air missile which will compete with the best of air-to-air missiles the world had to offer at the time. It never stood in the operational test, excluding three mig-21 kills. Also, its design was not satisfactory to the air force’s needs.

    It was designed as a small missile which was based on a direct hitting. Its motor and warhead were of modest dimensions, a fact which caused to a decrease in performance. And if that was not enough, its warhead was designed initially without a proximity fuse.
During the development, no one had predicted any special problems in the production process. Eventually, it appeared to be the most problematic issue of the Shafrir 2 development program, and one that would affect the whole Israeli defense industry structure.

    The heads of the defense industries wanted to increase competition between factories, in order to reduce costs and to increase efficiency. In opposite to their plans, IMI encountered some difficulties in the production of several composite parts of the missile. This led to a delay in turning the missile operational. Following that, Rafael took on itself the lead for the project, first as IMI's sub-contractor, and then as a main one.

    The Shafrir 2 answered the engineer's expectations. It withstood almost all the designing demands they had faced it with. Operationally speaking, the Shafrir 2 was a tremendous success story, crediting to itself 106 enemy shot-downs. In terms of technology, it did not contain the latest developments available at the time, as the Shafrir 2 was the product the engineers wanted to create when they were designing the Shafrir 1.

    In retrospective, the decision to use the Shafrir 1 homing head and its electro-optic proximity fuse was right. New technologies such as cooled homing head and electromagnetic proximity fuse were not available at the time, and had to be developed from scratch. Such an adventure could have ruined the whole project so it was decided that development of a rear-sector interception missile would be adequate. But when the development of the Shafrir 2 started, the American AIM-9D missile, which had a cooled homing head and an electromagnetic proximity fuse, had been already in production and had the ability to be launched at wider sectors. And indeed, prior to the completion of the Shafrir 2, it was obvious that the next generation of air-to-air missiles, the Python 3, was needed to be developed.

    Nevertheless, the Shafrir 2 did not fall short of its technologically more advanced American rivals, in terms of operational achievements.

The Surprise of the War Shafrir 2 at the 1973 Yom Kippur War

    At the evening of the Yom Kippur War the IAF suffered from quantitative inferiority compared to its enemies air forces. The Egyptian air force had 600 fighter aircrafts, the Syrian air force had 345, and the IAF counted 192 fighter aircrafts. 76 of them were Shahak and Nesher fighters armed with Shafrir 2 air-to-air missiles. The fighters were deployed in 4 squadrons. At the time, the IAF had 4 kinds of air-to-air missiles - AIM-9D, AIM-9G, AIM-7E and the Shafrir 2.

    The war started at the 6th of October with no early warning. The IDF who was in a great surprise, ignored its existed doctrine of achieving air superiority as a key role to winning the war, and the air force was giving support to the ground forces, by directing most of its sorties to the field battles in order to prevent a catastrophe of the advancement of enemy forces into the cities of Israel.

    A program of the air force to hit a pre-emptive strike on Egypt and Syria was not accepted. No airfields, SAM sites or ground planes were attacked. This led to one of the most intense air-fights in the history of modern air-combats; 277 Egyptian and Syrian aircrafts were shot down. Half of them by air-to-air missiles. 176 Shafrir 2 missiles were launched at enemy aircrafts, killing 89 aircrafts. The Shafrir 2 kill rates were 50.7% of the launches, and 32.1% of total shot downs. the AIM-9D and AIM-9G had less success, achieving 39.8% and 18.9% of total shot downs. The AIM-7E missile had a success rate of 25%, shooting down 3 aircrafts out of 12 missiles. It also had 1.1% of total shot downs.

    It was obvious that the Shafrir 2 was the most successful air-to-air missile the IAF had been operating during the Yom Kippur War.

文章录入:军闻    责任编辑:《环球展望》 
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